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Wygląda, to sceny rozgrywające się reporter oto podgląda jego bohater ICM-0 .bmp 569 1,316 2,634 3,154 Details: The ICM-0 model was implemented ZPAQ 1 using the following configuration: comp 0 0 1 icm 7 hcomp b++ a=b a== 3 if a=0 b=0 endif a 0. The DC coefficient is modeled with a predictive filter. The decompresser decompresses the coefficients and inverts the transform by repeating the normal lossless JPEG compression steps to restore the original image. JPEG encoding from the DCT coefficients onward is deterministic, the result is bitwise identical. The patent was issued to Lovato and Yaakov Gringeler. Gringeler was the developer of the Compressia archiver. .2. PAQ. PAQ versions beginning with PAQ7 Dec. 2005 also include a JPEG model for baseline images Both PAQ and Stuffit compress to about the same size, but the PAQ compressor is much slower. PAQ is open source, its algorithm can be described better detail. It uses a context model instead of a transform. The context model decodes the image back to the DCT coefficients like the Stuffit algorithm, but instead this information is used as context to predict the Huffman coded data for both compression and decompression without a transform. The PAQ algorithm is not patented. The PAQ model has evolved over time but all versions work basically the same way. paq8px_v67 released Nov. 2009, the Huffman codes are predicted using 28 indirect context models. These are mixed with 3 mixers. The output of those 3 are adaptively mixed and passed through 2 SSE stages and then arithmetic encoded. All contexts are computed on Huffman code boundaries and combined with earlier bits the same Huffman code. The most important context is the combination of the component and the u,v coordinates to one of 192 values. JPEG uses effectively only 4 values because it uses the same Huffman tables for Cb and Cr, and the same tables for all 63 components. The PAQ model distinguishes them. Coefficients with large u and v tend to be smaller. Note that what is being modeled is a Huffman code representing a run of zeros along a zig-zag path followed by a nonzero coefficient with extra uncompressed bits appended. The second most important context is a prediction based on the partial DCT one dimension of the 8 pixels along each of the two adjacent edges the neighboring 8 by 8 blocks to the left and above. This model was added by Ondrus beginning July 2007 The model reflects the constraint that neighboring pixels adjacent blocks should have similar values. precisely, the 1 dimensional vertical DCT of the two adjacent columns of 8 pixels two horizontally adjacent blocks should have similar values. Likewise, the horizontal DCT of adjacent rows of pixels vertically adjacent blocks should be similar. A partial DCT is computed using one of the two summations the DCT equation above, for example the horizontal direction: S u α Σ x=0 S x cos, where α 1 1, α 1, u 0. At the beginning of a block, the context is computed for the two neighboring blocks. For the block to the left, the DCT is inverted the horizontal direction producing 8 columns each containing a DCT of the 8 pixels each column. The rightmost column coefficients C 70..C 77 provide the context. For each coefficient S uv being predicted, only the coefficient C 7v of the neighboring block is used as context. Furthermore, the context C 7v is updated by computing the partial inverse DCT of the current block the horizontal direction and incrementally subtracting from C 7v the coefficient of the leftmost column, S 0v. Thus, C 70..C 77 represents at all times the difference between the vertical DCT of the two neighboring columns of pixels. For a smooth image, these coefficients all tend toward small values as the higher frequency coefficients of the current block are coded. A similar calculation is done on the top row of the current block and the bottom row of the block above. There are other contexts which have a smaller effect on compression. These include preceding coefficients or their RS or Huffman codes within the same block, or corresponding coefficients neighboring blocks or earlier components the same block. All of these